Terminology

Benign Tumors

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Most tumors develop slowly over a period of time and can present themselves in practically any part of the human body. A benign tumor, such as a mole or a cyst, is a noncancerous tumor that lacks the malignant properties of a cancer. Benign tumors do not grow aggressively, invade surrounding tissue nor do they have the ability to metastasize. For the most part, benign tumors do not cause any harm. However, if a benign tumor is big enough ...

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Renal Angiogram

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A renal angiogram is often used to help diagnose conditions involving narrowed blood vessels to the kidney. The procedure is typically performed in patients who have elevated blood pressure or impaired kidney function—both ailments resulting from blocked vessels. Because in most cases, blood vessels are hard to detect using a regular x-ray, an angiogram is used whereas a special dye is injected in the arteries through a tube called a catheter so that all of the vessels will ...

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Vesicoureteral Reflux

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Urine normally flows in one direction—from the kidneys, through tubes called ureters, to the bladder. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the abnormal flow of urine from the bladder back into the ureters—in essence—performing a retrograde of urine flow. There are two types of vesicoureteral reflux: primary and secondary. Primary vesicoureteral reflux is when an infant is born with an impaired valve where the ureter joins the bladder; Secondary vesicoureteral reflux occurs when there is an infection, swelling or any ...

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Pubovaginal Sling

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For thousands of patients suffering from severe stress incontinence and an intrinsic sphincter deficiency (weakening of the urethra sphincter muscles), surgery is sometimes needed and recommended in order to repair the problem. The surgical procedure of inserting a sling around the bladder neck is used to create adequate urethral compression in order to achieve bladder control. One particular type of sling is the pubovaginal sling which is made, in essence, from a strip of tissue from the patient’s ...

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Kidney Stone

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Although kidney stones are one of the most treatable urologic disorders, they are commonly referred to as the most painful. Kidney stones are hard mineral deposits (made of salts and minerals that stick together) that form in the kidney and eventually make their way through the urinary tract until they are extracted through the urethra. The most common cause for kidney stones is not drinking enough water. In addition, some people are more susceptible to getting kidney stones either because ...

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Overflow UI

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There are many varying forms of incontinence—the term used to describe the inability to hold urine thus leaking it at inopportune times. Almost all incontinence conditions are caused either by a psychological, anatomical or pathologic factor affecting the bladder and the urinary tract. One such form of incontinence is called overflow incontinence. This particular type of condition includes frequent or constant leakage or dribbling of urine and my have urge or stress incontinence symptoms. The cause of overflow incontinence is ...

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Irritable Bladder

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If you experience symptoms related to an irritable bladder (also referred to as an overactive bladder) you are not alone. More than a million men and women suffer from an irritable bladder which means that at any given moment, you could feel a sudden urge to have to urinate. Those with this condition will also find that they are excusing themselves to go to the restroom to urinate more frequently than others, sometimes, even leaking urine before arriving. While having ...

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Transurethral Surgery

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Transurethral surgery is a surgical procedure in which parts or all of the prostrate—the gland in males that makes up part of the reproductive system—is removed. The procedure does not involve an external incision, but rather, a physician performing the surgery will enter the body through the urethra. This procedure is the preferred way in which most physicians will reach and treat an enlarged prostrate. The initial recovery period lasts approximately one week, and includes some pain and discomfort from ...

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Stress Test

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Stress tests are often administered to test for heart disease and/or a cardiac abnormality such as the incidence where there may not be enough blood flowing to the heart. The test essentially determines how much stress the heart can manage at that given time before something more serious occurs (for example, a stroke, heart attack, etc.). The most common stress test performed is an exercise stress test (Stress EKG) where a patient walks on a treadmill while the heart rate ...

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Peyronie’s Disease

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Peyronie’s disease is the development of scar tissue within the penis. The scarring becomes visible in the sense that when a penis is erect, it appears to be curved or bent. Peyronie’s disease for most men is very painful and could interrupt sexual intercourse due to the pain and anxiety that is associated with the condition. The causes of this abnormality are still relatively unknown; however, it is believed to be the result of an injury to the area (such ...

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